James Matthew Bradley Jr. appeared in federal court in San Antonio on Monday where he was charged with a single count of illegally transporting dozens of unauthorized immigrants.
This, after authorities found eight dead men in his truck parked outside a Walmart over the weekend.
The men were among 40 to 50 individuals allegedly being transported by Bradley.
Officials say two more men found in the truck, later died at the hospital and dozens of others were treated for heat stroke and dehydration.
The federal complaint says the truck lacked air conditioning and drinking water.
If convicted, Bradley could face the death penalty or life in prison.